## What is Shell off?

informal. to pay money for something, especially when the cost is unexpected and not wanted: If we lose the case, we’ll be forced to shell out. shell out sth Courts have ordered tobacco companies to shell out millions of dollars in damages to smokers.

## What is a renormalizable theory?

renormalization, the procedure in quantum field theory by which divergent parts of a calculation, leading to nonsensical infinite results, are absorbed by redefinition into a few measurable quantities, so yielding finite answers.

**What is mass renormalization?**

Renormalization: The total effective mass of a spherical charged particle includes the actual bare mass of the spherical shell (in addition to the mass mentioned above associated with its electric field). If the shell’s bare mass is allowed to be negative, it might be possible to take a consistent point limit.

**What does off shell mean in physics?**

In physics, particularly in quantum field theory, configurations of a physical system that satisfy classical equations of motion are called “on the mass shell” or simply more often on shell; while those that do not are called “off the mass shell”, or off shell.

### What is the mass shell condition?

A “mass-shell condition” is an equation which tells you whether a particular energy-momentum combination is on the mass shell or not, and thus whether it’s physically possible.

### How do you know if a theory is renormalizable?

And here’s how you do it. You just use the following criterion: An interaction is superficially renormalizable if its coupling constant has dimensions of lengthd with d less than or equal to zero, but not if d is greater than zero.

**What is the difference between regularization and renormalization?**

Regularization is just making a divergent expression (quantity) finite. Renormalization is just discarding this expression (i.e., making it zero). Regularization is just making a divergent expression (quantity) finite. Renormalization is just discarding this expression (i.e., making it zero).

**Who founded QED?**

Richard P. Feynman

The QED theory was refined and fully developed in the late 1940s by Richard P. Feynman, Julian S.

## What is mass shell condition?

In special relativity (no quantum mechanics yet), the “mass shell” or “mass hyperboloid” is the set of all energy-momentum combinations for a particle which give the correct rest mass for that particle, if you transform to the frame of reference in which the particle is at rest.