Why is India pulled to deep-sea mining the Hindu?
Recently, the Indian government cleared a deep ocean mission to explore deep seabed mining and encourage marine biodiversity research. The government aims to develop an integrated seabed mining system for mining polymetallic nodules from 6,000-metre depth in the central Indian Ocean.
Can India mine in international waters?
Through an agreement with the International Seabed Authority, India has a right to explore and mine polymetallic nodules over 750,000 square km. Though this is economically significant activity there is not yet a complete understanding of the environmental implications of this exploration and mining.
Why did the US decide not to join the deep-sea mining?
Indeed, more than 600 leading ocean scientists have signed a statement calling for a moratorium on ocean mining, citing the fragile ecosystem and dangers of irreversible damages that could ripple into the wider ocean environment.
Who is investing in deep-sea mining?
TechnipFMC, Wilhelmsen and NorSea are investing in Norwegian deep-sea mining company Loke Marine Minerals (Loke) to enable the energy transition. TechnipFMC is a co-investor in Loke Marine Minerals with an ownership of 18% while Wilhelmsen and NorSea together acquired an 18% stake in the company.
When did India have the right to mine manganese nodules?
– India can improve the availability of nickel, copper, cobalt and manganese by mining polymetallic nodules on the seabed in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. India has the right to explore and mine polymetallic nodules of over 750,000 square km through an agreement with the International Seabed Authority.
Why India has got the right to mine manganese nodules?
Magnesium nodules cover around 30%(on an average) of the seabed. Therefore they are most important deposits of minerals in the sea. India got the rights to mine them from International Seabed Authority (ISA) as it guards the Indian Ocean.
Which is deepest sea in India?
The Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are all parts of this ocean. The deepest point in the Indian Ocean is in the Java Trench near the Sunda Islands in the east, 7500 m (25,344 feet) deep.
Is there coal under the ocean?
Data from seismic tests and boreholes shows that the North Sea seabed contains up to 20 layers of coal, most of which can be reached with the technology already in place to extract offshore oil and gas.
What are polymetallic nodules Upsc?
Polymetallic nodules are rocks scattered on the seabed containing iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt.
Has deep sea mining started?
While deep-sea mining has not started in any part of the world, 16 international mining companies have contracts to explore the seabed for minerals within the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, and other companies have contracts to explore for nodules in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific …
Why India got right to mine manganese nodules?